Sindh Development Institute

Blog about efforts devoted to development of Sindh

Sindhi People (Basic information)

Posted by anmemon on February 13, 2008

Sindhi people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Total population
44.8 million

Regions with significant populations
Pakistan:
39,842,000 [1]
India:
4,890,000 [2]

USA:
400,000

Language(s)
Sindhi

Religion(s)
Islam (Sunni 63%, Shia 18%), Hinduism 15%, Christianity 2%, smaller groups of atheists and agnostics
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryans: Khojas • Memons • Gujaratis • Seraikis • Biharis • Marathis • Punjabis • Sindhi Baloch
Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. Sindhis that live in Pakistan are predominantly Muslim, while many Sindhi Hindus imigrated to India when British India was divided in 1947. The Sindhi language is an Indo-Aryan tongue with an eclectic history like the Sindhis themselves.

History
The original inhabitants of ancient Sindh were believed to be aboriginal tribes speaking languages related to Munda languages. The Dravidian culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient India (now in present-day Pakistan) around 3000 BC. The Indus Valley Civilization went into decline; historians cannot agree on the cause of the decline, but some theories include arrival of tribes from Eastern Europe or the change in the path of the Indus River.

The ancient civilization of what came to be known as Harappa and Mohenjodaro both derive their modern location names from the Sindhi language as opposed to the language of the Indus Valley Civilization which remains undeciphered.

In Sindhi, Moen-Jo-Daro (Moen means “dead people”, Jo means of and Daro means mound), so it means mound of the dead. Due to the geographical location of this city, it was prone to being flooded. One such calamity saw the entire city flooded and remained under water for a long time, buried under mountains of sand. A branch of the Aryan migrants called the Indo-Aryans are believed to have founded the Vedic Civilization that have existed between Sarasvati River and Ganges river around 1500 BC and also influenced Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization helped shape subsequent cultures in South Asia.

Arab travellers, specifically Al-Beruni in his book ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’, has declared that even before the advent of Islam into Sindh (711 A.D.), Sindhi was prevalent in Sindh. It was not only widely spoken but written too in different scripts. Al-Beruni has described many Sindhi words leading to the conclusion, that Sindhi was widely spoken and rich in vocabulary in his times.

Sindh was often the final stop for Middle Eastern and Central Asian empires such as the Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks and Afghans this gave Sindh a distinct and unique culture even before the arrival of Islam.

The site of a great deal of historical activity, Sindh was at the crossroads of civilization sitting at the edge of South Asia. Sindh was also one of the regions to become predominantly Muslim and was part of the earliest Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. The Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in Sindh. The Muslim Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting the millions of native people to Islam. Settled by Turks, Afghans, and Mughals, Sindh continued to evolve as a frontier state and by the time of British involvement was ruled by Balouchi kings.

[edit] Mass exodus of Hindu Sindhis
Main article: Partition of India#Sindh
In 1947, India attained independence. The partition of India took place, and Pakistan (West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which is present day Bangladesh) was created. Sindh was alloted to Pakistan by the British. The majority of Hindu Sindhis fled to India in the process of a great migration in the modern history across the borders of two newly created states in South Asia. Most of these Hindu Sindhis left Sindh for India. Today, Sindhis are scattered throughout the world and have built new communities and successful lives. A large Sindhi community now lives in the city of Ulhasnagar, which was originally an army barrack used to settle the Hindu Sindhi refugees.

Culture and society of Sindh

A pair of Sindhi ceremonial shoes, c. 1930.Sindhis are an Indo-Aryan language speaking people who have been modified by mainly Iranian, Turkic, Afghan and indigenous tribal populations over time. As a result of their geographic location and countless invasions and migration, the Sindhis display a wide variety of phenotypes.Also, the Sindhi language has borrowed some Arabic, Persian, and Balochi words over time.

As regards the composition of the Sindhi population the two main stocks that inhabit Sind are related to, and common, one with the Punjab and another with Balochistan. The majority stock is that of Rajputs and Jats who are the partial descendants of Sakas (Indo-Scythians, Kushans and Huns who also constitute the majority of the population of the Punjab. The title Huna, i.e. Huns, remains in use by some clans and is possibly a reference to this partial ancestral lineage. During Kalhora,tribes such as the Phariro live in Ali Muhammad Phariro,Khanwahan, NushaheroFeroze KandiaroPhariro rule a number of Jat tribes such as the Sials, Joyas and Khawars came from the Punjab and settled in Sindh. They are called Sirai i.e., people from the north, and speak Siraiki, a group that overlaps and is sometimes considerable transitional between the Punjabis and Sindhis.

The two main Rajput tribes of Sind are: the Samma, a branch of the Yadav Rajputs who inhabit the eastern and lower Sind and Bahawalpur; and the Sumra who, according to the 1907 edition of the Gazetteer are a branch of the Parwar Rajputs. Among others are the Chachos, Mahar/Mahers, Bhuttos, Ghanghros, Bhattis, Buriros, Lakkha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahar, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathors, Dakhan, Langah etc.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindhi_people”
Categories: “Related ethnic groups” needing confirmation | Sindhi people

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Sindhi People (Basic information)

Posted by anmemon on February 13, 2008

Sindhi people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Total population
44.8 million

Regions with significant populations
Pakistan:
39,842,000 [1]
India:
4,890,000 [2]

USA:
400,000

Language(s)
Sindhi

Religion(s)
Islam (Sunni 63%, Shia 18%), Hinduism 15%, Christianity 2%, smaller groups of atheists and agnostics
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryans: Khojas • Memons • Gujaratis • Seraikis • Biharis • Marathis • Punjabis • Sindhi Baloch
Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. Sindhis that live in Pakistan are predominantly Muslim, while many Sindhi Hindus imigrated to India when British India was divided in 1947. The Sindhi language is an Indo-Aryan tongue with an eclectic history like the Sindhis themselves.

History
The original inhabitants of ancient Sindh were believed to be aboriginal tribes speaking languages related to Munda languages. The Dravidian culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient India (now in present-day Pakistan) around 3000 BC. The Indus Valley Civilization went into decline; historians cannot agree on the cause of the decline, but some theories include arrival of tribes from Eastern Europe or the change in the path of the Indus River.

The ancient civilization of what came to be known as Harappa and Mohenjodaro both derive their modern location names from the Sindhi language as opposed to the language of the Indus Valley Civilization which remains undeciphered.

In Sindhi, Moen-Jo-Daro (Moen means “dead people”, Jo means of and Daro means mound), so it means mound of the dead. Due to the geographical location of this city, it was prone to being flooded. One such calamity saw the entire city flooded and remained under water for a long time, buried under mountains of sand. A branch of the Aryan migrants called the Indo-Aryans are believed to have founded the Vedic Civilization that have existed between Sarasvati River and Ganges river around 1500 BC and also influenced Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization helped shape subsequent cultures in South Asia.

Arab travellers, specifically Al-Beruni in his book ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’, has declared that even before the advent of Islam into Sindh (711 A.D.), Sindhi was prevalent in Sindh. It was not only widely spoken but written too in different scripts. Al-Beruni has described many Sindhi words leading to the conclusion, that Sindhi was widely spoken and rich in vocabulary in his times.

Sindh was often the final stop for Middle Eastern and Central Asian empires such as the Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks and Afghans this gave Sindh a distinct and unique culture even before the arrival of Islam.

The site of a great deal of historical activity, Sindh was at the crossroads of civilization sitting at the edge of South Asia. Sindh was also one of the regions to become predominantly Muslim and was part of the earliest Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. The Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in Sindh. The Muslim Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting the millions of native people to Islam. Settled by Turks, Afghans, and Mughals, Sindh continued to evolve as a frontier state and by the time of British involvement was ruled by Balouchi kings.

[edit] Mass exodus of Hindu Sindhis
Main article: Partition of India#Sindh
In 1947, India attained independence. The partition of India took place, and Pakistan (West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which is present day Bangladesh) was created. Sindh was alloted to Pakistan by the British. The majority of Hindu Sindhis fled to India in the process of a great migration in the modern history across the borders of two newly created states in South Asia. Most of these Hindu Sindhis left Sindh for India. Today, Sindhis are scattered throughout the world and have built new communities and successful lives. A large Sindhi community now lives in the city of Ulhasnagar, which was originally an army barrack used to settle the Hindu Sindhi refugees.

Culture and society of Sindh

A pair of Sindhi ceremonial shoes, c. 1930.Sindhis are an Indo-Aryan language speaking people who have been modified by mainly Iranian, Turkic, Afghan and indigenous tribal populations over time. As a result of their geographic location and countless invasions and migration, the Sindhis display a wide variety of phenotypes.Also, the Sindhi language has borrowed some Arabic, Persian, and Balochi words over time.

As regards the composition of the Sindhi population the two main stocks that inhabit Sind are related to, and common, one with the Punjab and another with Balochistan. The majority stock is that of Rajputs and Jats who are the partial descendants of Sakas (Indo-Scythians, Kushans and Huns who also constitute the majority of the population of the Punjab. The title Huna, i.e. Huns, remains in use by some clans and is possibly a reference to this partial ancestral lineage. During Kalhora,tribes such as the Phariro live in Ali Muhammad Phariro,Khanwahan, NushaheroFeroze KandiaroPhariro rule a number of Jat tribes such as the Sials, Joyas and Khawars came from the Punjab and settled in Sindh. They are called Sirai i.e., people from the north, and speak Siraiki, a group that overlaps and is sometimes considerable transitional between the Punjabis and Sindhis.

The two main Rajput tribes of Sind are: the Samma, a branch of the Yadav Rajputs who inhabit the eastern and lower Sind and Bahawalpur; and the Sumra who, according to the 1907 edition of the Gazetteer are a branch of the Parwar Rajputs. Among others are the Chachos, Mahar/Mahers, Bhuttos, Ghanghros, Bhattis, Buriros, Lakkha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahar, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathors, Dakhan, Langah etc.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindhi_people”
Categories: “Related ethnic groups” needing confirmation | Sindhi people

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Sindhi People (Basic Information)

Posted by anmemon on February 13, 2008

Sindhi people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Total population
44.8 million

Regions with significant populations
Pakistan:
39,842,000 [1]
India:
4,890,000 [2]

USA:
400,000

Language(s)
Sindhi

Religion(s)
Islam (Sunni 63%, Shia 18%), Hinduism 15%, Christianity 2%, smaller groups of atheists and agnostics
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryans: Khojas • Memons • Gujaratis • Seraikis • Biharis • Marathis • Punjabis • Sindhi Baloch
Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. Sindhis that live in Pakistan are predominantly Muslim, while many Sindhi Hindus imigrated to India when British India was divided in 1947. The Sindhi language is an Indo-Aryan tongue with an eclectic history like the Sindhis themselves.

History
The original inhabitants of ancient Sindh were believed to be aboriginal tribes speaking languages related to Munda languages. The Dravidian culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient India (now in present-day Pakistan) around 3000 BC. The Indus Valley Civilization went into decline; historians cannot agree on the cause of the decline, but some theories include arrival of tribes from Eastern Europe or the change in the path of the Indus River.

The ancient civilization of what came to be known as Harappa and Mohenjodaro both derive their modern location names from the Sindhi language as opposed to the language of the Indus Valley Civilization which remains undeciphered.

In Sindhi, Moen-Jo-Daro (Moen means “dead people”, Jo means of and Daro means mound), so it means mound of the dead. Due to the geographical location of this city, it was prone to being flooded. One such calamity saw the entire city flooded and remained under water for a long time, buried under mountains of sand. A branch of the Aryan migrants called the Indo-Aryans are believed to have founded the Vedic Civilization that have existed between Sarasvati River and Ganges river around 1500 BC and also influenced Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization helped shape subsequent cultures in South Asia.

Arab travellers, specifically Al-Beruni in his book ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’, has declared that even before the advent of Islam into Sindh (711 A.D.), Sindhi was prevalent in Sindh. It was not only widely spoken but written too in different scripts. Al-Beruni has described many Sindhi words leading to the conclusion, that Sindhi was widely spoken and rich in vocabulary in his times.

Sindh was often the final stop for Middle Eastern and Central Asian empires such as the Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks and Afghans this gave Sindh a distinct and unique culture even before the arrival of Islam.

The site of a great deal of historical activity, Sindh was at the crossroads of civilization sitting at the edge of South Asia. Sindh was also one of the regions to become predominantly Muslim and was part of the earliest Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. The Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in Sindh. The Muslim Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting the millions of native people to Islam. Settled by Turks, Afghans, and Mughals, Sindh continued to evolve as a frontier state and by the time of British involvement was ruled by Balouchi kings.

[edit] Mass exodus of Hindu Sindhis
Main article: Partition of India#Sindh
In 1947, India attained independence. The partition of India took place, and Pakistan (West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which is present day Bangladesh) was created. Sindh was alloted to Pakistan by the British. The majority of Hindu Sindhis fled to India in the process of a great migration in the modern history across the borders of two newly created states in South Asia. Most of these Hindu Sindhis left Sindh for India. Today, Sindhis are scattered throughout the world and have built new communities and successful lives. A large Sindhi community now lives in the city of Ulhasnagar, which was originally an army barrack used to settle the Hindu Sindhi refugees.

Culture and society of Sindh

A pair of Sindhi ceremonial shoes, c. 1930.Sindhis are an Indo-Aryan language speaking people who have been modified by mainly Iranian, Turkic, Afghan and indigenous tribal populations over time. As a result of their geographic location and countless invasions and migration, the Sindhis display a wide variety of phenotypes.Also, the Sindhi language has borrowed some Arabic, Persian, and Balochi words over time.

As regards the composition of the Sindhi population the two main stocks that inhabit Sind are related to, and common, one with the Punjab and another with Balochistan. The majority stock is that of Rajputs and Jats who are the partial descendants of Sakas (Indo-Scythians, Kushans and Huns who also constitute the majority of the population of the Punjab. The title Huna, i.e. Huns, remains in use by some clans and is possibly a reference to this partial ancestral lineage. During Kalhora,tribes such as the Phariro live in Ali Muhammad Phariro,Khanwahan, NushaheroFeroze KandiaroPhariro rule a number of Jat tribes such as the Sials, Joyas and Khawars came from the Punjab and settled in Sindh. They are called Sirai i.e., people from the north, and speak Siraiki, a group that overlaps and is sometimes considerable transitional between the Punjabis and Sindhis.

The two main Rajput tribes of Sind are: the Samma, a branch of the Yadav Rajputs who inhabit the eastern and lower Sind and Bahawalpur; and the Sumra who, according to the 1907 edition of the Gazetteer are a branch of the Parwar Rajputs. Among others are the Chachos, Mahar/Mahers, Bhuttos, Ghanghros, Bhattis, Buriros, Lakkha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahar, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathors, Dakhan, Langah etc.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindhi_people”
Categories: “Related ethnic groups” needing confirmation | Sindhi people

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Sindhi People (Basic information)

Posted by anmemon on February 13, 2008

Sindhi people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Total population
44.8 million

Regions with significant populations
Pakistan:
39,842,000 [1]
India:
4,890,000 [2]

USA:
400,000

Language(s)
Sindhi

Religion(s)
Islam (Sunni 63%, Shia 18%), Hinduism 15%, Christianity 2%, smaller groups of atheists and agnostics
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryans: Khojas • Memons • Gujaratis • Seraikis • Biharis • Marathis • Punjabis • Sindhi Baloch
Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. Sindhis that live in Pakistan are predominantly Muslim, while many Sindhi Hindus imigrated to India when British India was divided in 1947. The Sindhi language is an Indo-Aryan tongue with an eclectic history like the Sindhis themselves.

History
The original inhabitants of ancient Sindh were believed to be aboriginal tribes speaking languages related to Munda languages. The Dravidian culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient India (now in present-day Pakistan) around 3000 BC. The Indus Valley Civilization went into decline; historians cannot agree on the cause of the decline, but some theories include arrival of tribes from Eastern Europe or the change in the path of the Indus River.

The ancient civilization of what came to be known as Harappa and Mohenjodaro both derive their modern location names from the Sindhi language as opposed to the language of the Indus Valley Civilization which remains undeciphered.

In Sindhi, Moen-Jo-Daro (Moen means “dead people”, Jo means of and Daro means mound), so it means mound of the dead. Due to the geographical location of this city, it was prone to being flooded. One such calamity saw the entire city flooded and remained under water for a long time, buried under mountains of sand. A branch of the Aryan migrants called the Indo-Aryans are believed to have founded the Vedic Civilization that have existed between Sarasvati River and Ganges river around 1500 BC and also influenced Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization helped shape subsequent cultures in South Asia.

Arab travellers, specifically Al-Beruni in his book ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’, has declared that even before the advent of Islam into Sindh (711 A.D.), Sindhi was prevalent in Sindh. It was not only widely spoken but written too in different scripts. Al-Beruni has described many Sindhi words leading to the conclusion, that Sindhi was widely spoken and rich in vocabulary in his times.

Sindh was often the final stop for Middle Eastern and Central Asian empires such as the Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks and Afghans this gave Sindh a distinct and unique culture even before the arrival of Islam.

The site of a great deal of historical activity, Sindh was at the crossroads of civilization sitting at the edge of South Asia. Sindh was also one of the regions to become predominantly Muslim and was part of the earliest Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. The Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in Sindh. The Muslim Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting the millions of native people to Islam. Settled by Turks, Afghans, and Mughals, Sindh continued to evolve as a frontier state and by the time of British involvement was ruled by Balouchi kings.

[edit] Mass exodus of Hindu Sindhis
Main article: Partition of India#Sindh
In 1947, India attained independence. The partition of India took place, and Pakistan (West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which is present day Bangladesh) was created. Sindh was alloted to Pakistan by the British. The majority of Hindu Sindhis fled to India in the process of a great migration in the modern history across the borders of two newly created states in South Asia. Most of these Hindu Sindhis left Sindh for India. Today, Sindhis are scattered throughout the world and have built new communities and successful lives. A large Sindhi community now lives in the city of Ulhasnagar, which was originally an army barrack used to settle the Hindu Sindhi refugees.

Culture and society of Sindh

A pair of Sindhi ceremonial shoes, c. 1930.Sindhis are an Indo-Aryan language speaking people who have been modified by mainly Iranian, Turkic, Afghan and indigenous tribal populations over time. As a result of their geographic location and countless invasions and migration, the Sindhis display a wide variety of phenotypes.Also, the Sindhi language has borrowed some Arabic, Persian, and Balochi words over time.

As regards the composition of the Sindhi population the two main stocks that inhabit Sind are related to, and common, one with the Punjab and another with Balochistan. The majority stock is that of Rajputs and Jats who are the partial descendants of Sakas (Indo-Scythians, Kushans and Huns who also constitute the majority of the population of the Punjab. The title Huna, i.e. Huns, remains in use by some clans and is possibly a reference to this partial ancestral lineage. During Kalhora,tribes such as the Phariro live in Ali Muhammad Phariro,Khanwahan, NushaheroFeroze KandiaroPhariro rule a number of Jat tribes such as the Sials, Joyas and Khawars came from the Punjab and settled in Sindh. They are called Sirai i.e., people from the north, and speak Siraiki, a group that overlaps and is sometimes considerable transitional between the Punjabis and Sindhis.

The two main Rajput tribes of Sind are: the Samma, a branch of the Yadav Rajputs who inhabit the eastern and lower Sind and Bahawalpur; and the Sumra who, according to the 1907 edition of the Gazetteer are a branch of the Parwar Rajputs. Among others are the Chachos, Mahar/Mahers, Bhuttos, Ghanghros, Bhattis, Buriros, Lakkha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahar, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathors, Dakhan, Langah etc.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindhi_people”
Categories: “Related ethnic groups” needing confirmation | Sindhi people

Leave a Reply

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WordPress.com Logo

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Sindhi People (basic information)

Posted by anmemon on February 13, 2008

Sindhi people
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Total population
44.8 million

Regions with significant populations
Pakistan:
39,842,000 [1]
India:
4,890,000 [2]

USA:
400,000

Language(s)
Sindhi

Religion(s)
Islam (Sunni 63%, Shia 18%), Hinduism 15%, Christianity 2%, smaller groups of atheists and agnostics
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryans: Khojas • Memons • Gujaratis • Seraikis • Biharis • Marathis • Punjabis • Sindhi Baloch
Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. Sindhis that live in Pakistan are predominantly Muslim, while many Sindhi Hindus imigrated to India when British India was divided in 1947. The Sindhi language is an Indo-Aryan tongue with an eclectic history like the Sindhis themselves.

History
The original inhabitants of ancient Sindh were believed to be aboriginal tribes speaking languages related to Munda languages. The Dravidian culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient India (now in present-day Pakistan) around 3000 BC. The Indus Valley Civilization went into decline; historians cannot agree on the cause of the decline, but some theories include arrival of tribes from Eastern Europe or the change in the path of the Indus River.

The ancient civilization of what came to be known as Harappa and Mohenjodaro both derive their modern location names from the Sindhi language as opposed to the language of the Indus Valley Civilization which remains undeciphered.

In Sindhi, Moen-Jo-Daro (Moen means “dead people”, Jo means of and Daro means mound), so it means mound of the dead. Due to the geographical location of this city, it was prone to being flooded. One such calamity saw the entire city flooded and remained under water for a long time, buried under mountains of sand. A branch of the Aryan migrants called the Indo-Aryans are believed to have founded the Vedic Civilization that have existed between Sarasvati River and Ganges river around 1500 BC and also influenced Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization helped shape subsequent cultures in South Asia.

Arab travellers, specifically Al-Beruni in his book ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’, has declared that even before the advent of Islam into Sindh (711 A.D.), Sindhi was prevalent in Sindh. It was not only widely spoken but written too in different scripts. Al-Beruni has described many Sindhi words leading to the conclusion, that Sindhi was widely spoken and rich in vocabulary in his times.

Sindh was often the final stop for Middle Eastern and Central Asian empires such as the Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks and Afghans this gave Sindh a distinct and unique culture even before the arrival of Islam.

The site of a great deal of historical activity, Sindh was at the crossroads of civilization sitting at the edge of South Asia. Sindh was also one of the regions to become predominantly Muslim and was part of the earliest Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. The Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in Sindh. The Muslim Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting the millions of native people to Islam. Settled by Turks, Afghans, and Mughals, Sindh continued to evolve as a frontier state and by the time of British involvement was ruled by Balouchi kings.

[edit] Mass exodus of Hindu Sindhis
Main article: Partition of India#Sindh
In 1947, India attained independence. The partition of India took place, and Pakistan (West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which is present day Bangladesh) was created. Sindh was alloted to Pakistan by the British. The majority of Hindu Sindhis fled to India in the process of a great migration in the modern history across the borders of two newly created states in South Asia. Most of these Hindu Sindhis left Sindh for India. Today, Sindhis are scattered throughout the world and have built new communities and successful lives. A large Sindhi community now lives in the city of Ulhasnagar, which was originally an army barrack used to settle the Hindu Sindhi refugees.

Culture and society of Sindh

A pair of Sindhi ceremonial shoes, c. 1930.Sindhis are an Indo-Aryan language speaking people who have been modified by mainly Iranian, Turkic, Afghan and indigenous tribal populations over time. As a result of their geographic location and countless invasions and migration, the Sindhis display a wide variety of phenotypes.Also, the Sindhi language has borrowed some Arabic, Persian, and Balochi words over time.

As regards the composition of the Sindhi population the two main stocks that inhabit Sind are related to, and common, one with the Punjab and another with Balochistan. The majority stock is that of Rajputs and Jats who are the partial descendants of Sakas (Indo-Scythians, Kushans and Huns who also constitute the majority of the population of the Punjab. The title Huna, i.e. Huns, remains in use by some clans and is possibly a reference to this partial ancestral lineage. During Kalhora,tribes such as the Phariro live in Ali Muhammad Phariro,Khanwahan, NushaheroFeroze KandiaroPhariro rule a number of Jat tribes such as the Sials, Joyas and Khawars came from the Punjab and settled in Sindh. They are called Sirai i.e., people from the north, and speak Siraiki, a group that overlaps and is sometimes considerable transitional between the Punjabis and Sindhis.

The two main Rajput tribes of Sind are: the Samma, a branch of the Yadav Rajputs who inhabit the eastern and lower Sind and Bahawalpur; and the Sumra who, according to the 1907 edition of the Gazetteer are a branch of the Parwar Rajputs. Among others are the Chachos, Mahar/Mahers, Bhuttos, Ghanghros, Bhattis, Buriros, Lakkha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahar, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathors, Dakhan, Langah etc.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindhi_people”
Categories: “Related ethnic groups” needing confirmation | Sindhi people

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